Efficient hydrogen storage is crucial for the emerging hydrogen energy markets. Currently, hydrogen is stored and transported in a compressed form to satisfy safety and weight regulations for high pressure gases. Physical storage is the most mature hydrogen storage technology. The current near-term technology for on-board automotive physical hydrogen storage is in compressed gas vessels. The weight is considerably lower with composite materials than stainless steel and can also offer high strength for safety.

ADHERE aims at developing cost-competitive lightweight composite cylinders with improved mechanical and barrier properties for hydrogen storage using the additive manufacturing technology (3D-printing). Chemo-chromic material-based sensors will be developed and integrated into these structures for real-time monitoring of the gas diffusion. The hydrogen storage vessels will be studied in the energy system using wind turbines.

The expected key results of the project are listed below in three different areas.


  • Demonstrate vessel for hydrogen storage using composite material with metallic surface coating
  • Develop 3D printing of cylinder from polymer and carbon fiber composite with metallic inner and outer surface coating by Ni electroless deposition and Cu electrodeposition
  • Apply material modelling design using CAD models and FEM modelling
  • Optimize material properties and cylinder developments: size and thickness of materials, pressure, temperature bearing ability
  • Prepare novel chemo-chromic material based sensors for real time monitoring of structural integrity of cylinders and hydrogen gas leakage detection
  • Integration and performance analysis of hydrogen storage vessel with wind turbine


  • Cost reduction of hydrogen storage vessel
  • Manufacturing of vessel using 3D-printing shows future market of technology knowhow
  • Demonstrate flexibility of size and shape of cylinders. Allows storage vessels to be customized to fit customer’s needs


  • Exchange between relevant stakeholders (technology and service providers, innovators, start-ups, end-users and communities)
  • Dissemination by homepage, newsletters, social channels, direct contact and press
  • Exchange between relevant stakeholders (such as technology and service providers, innovators, start-ups, end-users and communities)
  • Knowledge exchange workshops realized to create three-layer interaction